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25 January 2023

Eliminating DC Resistively Coupled Noise: A Signal and Power Integrity Tutorial

Figure 8. The measured voltage noise on the victim
trace, on the other side of the ground plane gap,
showing no resistively coupled cross talk on the
order of 10 uV, the noise floor of the measurement.

The following is excerpted from Professor Eric Bogatin's article in the Signal Integrity Journal 2023 eBook, The Case for Split Ground Planes . Reprinted by permission of Signal Integrity Journal.

This section continues from the discussion on Inductively Coupled Noise and Resistively Coupled Noise.

. . .

When we cut a gap in the return plane, there will be no DC current flow across the gap. There will be magnetic field coupling across the gap which is why we still see significant mutual inductance coupling between the aggressor and victim across the gap. The gap has only a small impact on this noise.

However, we would expect there would be no resistively coupled noise on the victim trace on the other side of the ground plane gap. In Figure 8, the resistively coupled noise is measured with the same scale and averaging as the noise on the victim line with no gap. The noise floor of this measurement is about 10 uV. To this level, there is no measurable resistively coupled noise, a significant reduction. 

23 January 2023

Inductively Coupled Noise and Resistively Coupled Noise: A Signal and Power Integrity Tutorial

Figure 6. Measuring the inductively coupled noise
on the victim trace adjacent to the aggressor
signal with no gap and separated by a gap.
The inductively coupled noise is reduced by
about 40% on the victim trace separated by a gap.
This is a small impact.

The following is excerpted from Professor Eric Bogatin's article in the Signal Integrity Journal 2023 eBook, The Case for Split Ground Planes . Reprinted by permission of Signal Integrity Journal.

This section continues from the discussion on Return Current at Low Frequency.

. . .

Inductively Coupled Noise

In a plane, at frequencies below about 10 kHz, return currents will not flow under the signal path, but will spread out in the return plane. Above 10 kHz, the return currents are localized under the signal paths. 

When we have two adjacent signal paths that are over a wide, continuous plane, they will show inductive cross talk at high frequency. Even with minimal overlap of the return currents, there is still loop mutual inductance between the two signal-return paths. This inductive noise is driven by the changing current, the dI/dt, in the aggressor signal-return path, which will get smaller at lower frequency.

18 January 2023

Return Current at Low Frequency: A Signal and Power Integrity Tutorial

Figure 3. Specially configured coax cable with
the front and back of the shield shorted together.

The following is excerpted from Professor Eric Bogatin's article in the Signal Integrity Journal 2023 eBook, The Case for Split Ground Planes . Reprinted by permission of Signal Integrity Journal.

This section continues the discussion in Signal Return Paths of the equation,

Z = R + j𝛚L

Where:

Z is the loop impedance of the current loop path, 

R is the series resistance of the loop and 

L is the loop inductance of the path.

. . .

At low frequency, when the loop impedance is dominated by the R term, the current distribution in the return plane is NOT driven by the loop impedance, it is driven by the loop resistance. In the signal path, the current will spread out uniformly as any filament path in the signal conductor will have roughly the same resistance.

But the current filaments in the return path with the lowest R will be those which are shortest. This means that return currents will take the shortest paths, independent of the signal paths. As frequency increases, the return current will redistribute to transition from the path of lowest R to the path of lowest L. 

16 January 2023

Signal Return Paths: A Signal and Power Integrity Tutorial

Figure 1. Current distribution in the signal and
return conductors at three different frequencies.
The current redistribution at higher frequency
is driven by the currents taking filament paths
with the lowest loop inductance. 
The following is excerpted from Professor Eric Bogatin's article in the Signal Integrity Journal 2023 eBook, The Case for Split Ground Planes . Reprinted by permission of Signal Integrity Journal.

. . .

Why Continuous Return Path Planes

The first step in engineering interconnects to reduce noise is to provide a continuous, low impedance return path to control the impedance, which controls reflection noise, and reduce the cross talk between signals that also share the same return conductor. 

A wide, continuous ground plane adjacent to a signal trace will be the lowest cross talk configuration. Anything other than a wide plane means more cross talk between signal paths sharing this return conductor. This means, never add a split or gap in the return path. You would run the risk of a signal trace inadvertently crossing this discontinuity.

If a signal crosses over a split ground plane, there are two effects which compound each other. Crossing a split creates a higher impedance path for return currents that must cross the split and forces return currents from multiple signals to overlap through the same, higher impedance, common path. 

28 November 2022

New 60 V Offset Power Rail Probes Offer the Capability Needed for 48 V Power Integrity Analysis

RP4060 Rail Probe
Figure 1. The RP2060 and RP4060
build on the legacy of the RP4030 power
rail probe. The new probes are ideally
suited to working with the new 48 Vdc 
power structures.
In 2016, Teledyne LeCroy first offered the RP4030 Power Rail Probe, which was designed to enable engineers to probe a low-impedance, low-voltage DC power/voltage rail signal without loading the device under test (DUT). It provided ±30 V of probe offset to allow a DC power/voltage rail signal to be displayed in the vertical center of the oscilloscope regardless of the gain (sensitivity) setting.

Recently, we released two, new power rail probes that build on those capabilities—the 2 GHz RP2060 and 4 GHz RP4060. Both probes feature:

  • ±60 V Offset Capability
  • ±800 mV Dynamic Range
  • 50 kΩ DC Input Impedance (for low loading of low-impedance power rails)
  • 1.2:1Attenuation (for low additive noise)
  • MCX-terminated cable with a variety of board connections: 4 GHz*-rated MCX PCB mount;
    4 GHz* solder-in; 3 GHz* coaxial cable to U.FL PCB mount; optional 500 MHz browser
* Bandwidths listed are for the 4 GHz RP4060. Maximum bandwidth when used with RP2060 is 2 GHz.

Why the New Probes?

One driver of the new release is the increase in the number and size of data centers needed to support cloud computing and other data-intensive applications, and the new power architectures they require. The new rail probe is designed to ideally meet the needs of engineers working with power rails rated up to 48 Vdc.

21 November 2022

Oscilloscope Serial Data Measurements and DAC: Trigger, Decode, Measure/Graph and Eye Diagram Software

Table of serial bus measurement parameters
Figure 1. Serial bus measurements made available
with "TDME" and "TDMP "decoder options.
All Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscopes support a rich set of standard waveform measurement parameters, but the installation of any "TDME" or "TDMP" serial decoder software option adds special parameters designed for measuring serial data buses. Besides automating the measurement of serial bus timing, these parameters allow you to access encoded serial data and extract it to analog values for what is essentially a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)!

What’s in a Name?

Teledyne LeCroy has adopted the convention of using a key in the name of our serial trigger and decode products that tells you what capabilities they offer.  The “ME” or “MP” in the name of a Teledyne LeCroy serial decoder option (e.g., CAN FDbus TDME or USB4-SB TDMP) refers to "Measure/Graph and Eye Diagram" or "Measure/Graph and Physical Layer Tests." All these options include the following 10 serial bus measurements. Physical Layer Test options will also include measurements designed specifically to meet the requirements of the standard.

14 November 2022

SDAIII and QualiPHY Software: Oscilloscope Eye Diagrams for Compliance and Debug

Figure 1. SDAIII enables eye diagrams and eye
measurements of four lanes of  streaming data.
Besides the serial TDME and TDMP options discussed earlier, there are other ways to generate eye diagrams on your Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscope for compliance testing and debug.

SDAIII Serial Data Analysis Software

SDAIII offers the most comprehensive eye diagram capabilities for Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscopes, with tools for optimizing the displayed eye that are especially useful to high-speed serial data analysis.