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You need to test, we're here to help.

27 July 2020

Fundamentals of 100Base-T1 Ethernet

100Base-T1 toplogy
100Base-T1 Topology
The term Automotive Ethernet can be used to refer to any Ethernet-based network for in-vehicle electrical systems. It encompasses 100Base-T1, as well as several other variants/speeds of Ethernet (e.g., 10Base-T1, 1000Base-T1). Here, we’ll describe 100 Mb/s Automotive Ethernet as defined by the IEEE in its 802.3bp specification, which is nearly identical to BroadCom’s variant, BroadR-Reach.

20 July 2020


Decoding of SENT SPC frames showing Master Trigge Pulse.
SENT SPC interrogation mechanism showing 
MTP preceding standard SENT frame.
Single Edge Nibble Transmission protocol, more commonly known as SENT (SAE J2716 JAN201604), has long been used by the Automotive industry to report low-speed sensor data to the Engine Control Unit (ECU). SENT was developed because the environment in a car was too noisy to transmit high resolution (10- or 12-bit) sensor data vertically on a 5 V bus. Instead, sensor signals are transmitted as a series of pulses, with data measured by falling-edge to falling-edge times. Information lies within the width of the pulses. Later specifications of SENT introduced Fast and Slow Channels to designate different streams of information carried within the same messages.

06 July 2020

Probe Safety Demystified: Dynamic Range and Voltage Swing

One of the most basic things to know when using any probe is “what is the maximum voltage the device can safely measure?” The answer isn’t as straightforward as you might imagine, it requires understanding several key probe specifications as well as the nature of your signal.

Single-ended Range

Single-ended range is maximum voltage input to ground.
Figure 1. Single-ended range is
measured voltage input to ground.
Everyone is pretty familiar with single-ended range: that's the maximum safe voltage input to ground, shown in Figure 1. Ground is directly tied to oscilloscope ground, which is tied to building ground. Therefore, when measuring voltage within this range using a single-ended probe, the ground connection cannot be a floating voltage, or you could damage the probe, the DUT, the oscilloscope...maybe yourself, as well. Single-ended voltage must be a grounded voltage on your board or something that could be tied to ground.