## You need to test, we're here to help.

You need to test, we're here to help.

## 24 May 2021

### Mode Conversion

 Figure 1: The lower-left and upper-right quadrants of this matrix show the S-parameters that represent mode conversion from differential to common signal, and vice versa.
As said earlier, mixed-mode S-parameters describe the general case of combinations of differential and common signals. When we speak of mode conversion in mixed-mode S-parameters, we are referring to the change of a differential signal into a common signal, or a common signal into a differential signal, as it travels the transmission line. If we look at the matrix of mixed-mode S-parameters in Figure 1, we see that those mixed mode S-parameters affected by such a mode conversion—with a different type of signal going out than what went in—are in the lower-left and upper-right quadrants.

Let’s take the S-parameters SCD11 and SCD21 to see how the combination of single-ended S-parameters they represent reveal the source of mode conversion. If we look at SCD11, the reflected mode conversion, as a function of its single-ended S-parameters, we see:

## 17 May 2021

### Converting Single to Mixed-Mode S-Parameters

 Figure 1: Model of two transmission lines with crosstalk showing the transmission and crosstalk related S-parameters.

We have introduced mixed mode S-parameters and developed a formal structure for handling them. It is now time to discuss converting single-ended S-parameters into mixed-mode S-parameters. This is important because every instrument manufacturer obtains mixed mode S-parameters by first measuring single-ended S-parameters, then converting them mathematically to mixed-mode. This assumes that the interconnects being measured are passive, linear and time invariant.  Let’s begin with our model of two transmission lines with crosstalk shown in Figure 1.

## 12 May 2021

### Introduction to Mixed-Mode S-parameters

 Figure 1: Single-ended vs. differential signal "world views" of S-parameters
We’ve treated single-ended S-parameters quite extensively in this blog. Links to several entries are listed at the bottom of this post. Now, we’re going to look at how we go from single-ended to mixed-mode S-parameters and what new information we can find in them. This will come in handy when we start looking at some of the MDI S-parameter tests that are performed for Automotive Ethernet compliance a bit down the road.

With single-ended S-parameters, we look at every combination of ‘going in signals’ and ‘coming out signals’. For example, two single-ended transmission lines and their return paths would yield a four-port S-parameter file. We take the complex ratios of each port combination to obtain the S-parameter value in the form of:

S_(OUT,IN) =  V_OUT/V_IN

The bold typeface indicates complex quantities.

But what happens if we drive two transmission lines with a differential source? Figure 1 compares the single-ended and differential signal world views.

## 04 May 2021

### How to Use Memory Properly

In a recent post, we addressed setting sample rate for serial data acquisition, but let’s look again at how time per division (time/div), memory length and sample rate all interact, and what you can do to optimize your use of oscilloscope capture memory when setting up your timebase.
 Figure 1: Sample rate as a function of time/div for three different memory lengths. Longer memory extends the range of time/div settings that support the highest sample rate.